OHS Code Explanation Guide

Published Date: July 01, 2009
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Part 6 Cranes, Hoists and Lifting Devices

Section 94 Maintenance and inspection

CSA Standard CAN/CSA-B167-96 (R2007), Safety Standard for Maintenance and Inspection of Overhead Cranes, Gantry Cranes, Monorails, Hoists and Trolleys, specifies the minimum requirements for inspection, testing and maintenance of overhead cranes, monorails, hoists, trolleys, jib cranes, gantry and wall cranes, and other equipment having the same fundamental characteristics. All maintenance, inspections, repairs and modifications must be recorded in the equipment’s log book. As well, the log book should contain verification that the supporting structure has been designed and approved by a professional engineer to carry the maximum load as rated.

The following is a list of the more critical requirements of the Standard:

(a) Section 4.1 – A crane inspector must have at least 10,000 hours of relevant experience including knowledge of legislation, safety practices and standards.

(b) Section 4.2 – Critical components and inspection criteria must be identified by the manufacturer or a professional engineer.

(c) Section 4.4 – Describes the type and frequency of required inspections based on type of service.

(1) Initial inspection

  • prior to initial use, all new, re-installed, modified, or rebuilt equipment must be inspected by a crane inspector.

(2) Cranes in regular use

  • An operational inspection is a visual examination done by the operator or a qualified person in accordance with Table 6.2.

Table 6.2 Frequency of operational inspections based on service class

Service Class

Frequency

A + B At least monthly
C + D At least weekly to monthly
E + F Daily to weekly
Special As recommended by a qualified person

The CSA standard defines the service classes as follows:

Class A (standby or infrequent service)
This covers cranes that may be used in installations such as powerhouses, public utilities, turbine rooms, motor rooms and transformer stations where precise handling of equipment at slow speeds with long idle periods between lifts is required. Rated capacity loads may be handled for initial installation of equipment and for infrequent maintenance.

Class B (light service)
This covers cranes that may be used in repair shops, light assembly operations, service buildings, light warehousing, etc. where service requirements are light and the speed is slow. Loads may vary from no load to occasional rated-capacity loads, with 2.5 lifts per hour, averaging 2.6 metres per lift.

Class C (moderate service)
This covers cranes that may be used in operations such as machine shops, papermill machine rooms, etc., where requirements are moderate. In this type of service, the crane handles loads that average 50 percent of the rated capacity, with 5 to 10 lifts per hour, averaging 3 metres per lift, with no more than 50 percent of the lifts at rated capacity.

Class D (heavy service)
This covers cranes that may be used in heavy machine shops, foundries, fabricating plants, steel warehouses, container yards, lumber mills, etc., and standard duty bucket and magnet operations where heavy-duty production is required. In this type of service, loads approaching 50 percent of the rated capacity will be handled constantly during the working period. High speeds are desirable for this type of service, with 10 to 20 lifts per hour, averaging 3 metres per lift, with no more than 65 percent of the lifts at rated capacity.

Class E (severe service)
This covers a crane capable of handling loads approaching its rated capacity throughout its life. Applications may include scrap yards, cement mills, lumber mills, fertilizer plants, container handling, etc., with 20 or more lifts per hour at or near the rated capacity.

Class F (continuous severe service)
This covers a crane capable of handling loads approaching rated capacity continuously under severe service conditions throughout its life. Applications may include custom designed specialty cranes essential to performing critical work tasks affecting the total production facility. These cranes must provide the highest reliability.

Special service
This covers equipment that is not being used in the service classification for which it was designed or is subject to adverse conditions or environment.

Operational inspection

The operational inspection must include, but not be limited to, the following:

(a) all operational functions;
(b) leakage in line, tanks, valves, pumps and air or hydraulic systems;
(c) deformed, worn or cracked hooks;
(d) hook latches;
(e) hoist ropes;
(f) limit device(s) for function;
(g) function labels for operator control;
(h) all brakes.

Any defects found in this inspection must be corrected by a qualified person.

Periodic inspection

This is a visual examination done by a crane inspector in accordance with Table 6.3.

Table 6.3 Frequency of periodic inspections based on service class

Service Class

Frequency

A + B At least annually
C + D At least semi-annually
E + F At least quarterly
Special As recommended by a professional engineer or the manufacturer
Out of Service Prior to being returned to service

The periodic inspection must include, but not be limited to, the following:

(a) all elements of the operational inspection;
(b) deformed, cracked or corroded members;
(c) loose bolts or cracked welds;
(d) sheaves and drum cracks, distortion and wear;
(e) worn, corroded, cracked or distorted pins, bearings, bushings, shafts, couplings, gears, bumpers and trolley stops;
(f) glazing, scoring, warpage, contamination or wear of electrical and mechanical brakes;
(g) visible damage to hook, retaining nut and safety latch;
(h) deformed hook or worn hooks for compliance with manufacturer’s recommendations;
(i) evidence of pitting or deterioration of electrical contacts;
(j) electrical wire, cables and controls;
(k) performance of limited switches;
(l) worn and or damaged trolley and bridge wheel assemblies;
(m) load brake or controlled lowering device;
(n) wear, cracks, or corrosion of wire rope, load chain, end clamps or rope clips;
(o) missing or loose bolts in the supporting structure.

If the crane has, at any time, been accidentally overloaded, it must be removed from service, a periodic inspection carried out, and the load rating certified by a professional engineer before returning the crane to service.

(3) Cranes not in regular use

  • Before being placed in service, an operational inspection must be completed on a crane that has been in infrequent service or out of service for more than one month but less than a year.
  • Before being placed in service, a periodic inspection must be completed on a crane that has been out of service for more than one year.

(d) Section 5.1 Tests – Before initial use, for all new, re-installed, modified or rebuilt equipment, the following functions and components must be tested:

(a) all motions;
(b) limit switches at full speed;
(c) limiting and indicating devices;
(d) all circuits, controls, interlocks and sequence of operation;
(e) each crane motion, holding brakes and travel brakes with the hook carrying

  • rated capacity – during these tests the specified speeds are to be attained, provided the power supply to the crane is as specified, and
  • 125 percent of the rated capacity – during this test the specified speed need not be attained but the crane must show itself capable of dealing with the load without difficulty.

The rated capacity and 125 percent of rated capacity tests must be performed with the crane or hoist installed on its supporting members.

Prior to initial use, the vertical deflection of all new, reinstalled, modified or rebuilt equipment must be measured. The vertical deflection of the girder, produced by the weight of the trolley and the rated load, must not exceed the maximum allowed by the design specification.

A test report must be prepared and entered into the log book.

(e) Part 6 Maintenance – Describes the requirements for preventive maintenance and specific maintenance procedures. Repairs must only be performed by, or under the direct supervision of, a person having at least 8000 hours of relevant experience.