OHS Code Explanation Guide

Published Date: July 01, 2009
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Part 6 Cranes, Hoists and Lifting Devices

Section 88 Safety code for mobile cranes

CSA Standard CAN/CSA-Z150-98 (R2004), Safety Code on Mobile Cranes, describes the design, construction, load rating, installation, erection, inspection, maintenance, repair, modification, test and operation of lattice and telescopic boom mobile cranes.

The Standard applies only to machines that have all of the following fundamental characteristics:

(a) the crane comprises, or is mounted on, a non or self-propelled, crawler or wheel-mounted mobile base;

(b) the crane is designed and manufactured for the primary purpose of hoisting and lowering loads by means of tackle suspended from a boom;

(c) the boom is lattice or telescopic and capable of being elevated and lowered in the vertical plane and of being rotated from side to side in the horizontal plane;

(d) the tackle is suspended from the boom and is capable of being increased and diminished in length;

(e) the crane uses an engine(s) or motor(s) of sufficient power to

(i) elevate and lower the boom in the vertical plane with the load suspended from the tackle;

(ii) rotate the boom in the horizontal plane with the load suspended from the tackle;

(iii) increase and diminish the length of the tackle with the load suspended from the tackle; and

(iv) in the case of a self-propelled crane, propel the vehicle, carrier, or base on which or to which the boom and hoist mechanism is attached.

The Standard applies to crawler-mounted cranes, commercial truck-mounted cranes and boom trucks, and wheel-carrier-mounted cranes, as well as any variations thereof that retain the fundamental characteristics of these cranes.

The requirements of CSA Standard Z150-98 (R2004) apply to

(a) articulating booms such as knuckle boom cranes;

(b) railway cranes, locomotive-mounted cranes and rail-mounted cranes;

(c) side boom tractors as used in pipeline work (to which ASME Standard B30.14 applies);

(d) mobile lifting devices designed specifically for use in powerline and electric utility services such as digger derricks, radial boom derricks intended to auger holes for and to set power and telephone poles;

(e) lift trucks such as forklifts, equipped with booms; and

(f) portable, truck mounted tower cranes.

The following are some critical requirements of the Standard.

Part 4 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance

(1) Prior to initial use  – No crane is to be put into operation until it has been thoroughly inspected and any defects and hazards eliminated.

(2) Cranes in regular use – Inspections must be conducted at the intervals shown in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1 Inspection interval based on type of inspection

Type of Inspection

Inspection Interval

Daily To be performed daily.
Periodic Every 3 months or every 350 hours of machine time or as specified by the original equipment manufacturer.
Annual To be performed annually.
Complete structural inspection of telescopic boom Any time the boom is disassembled or at a minimum once every 10 years or 10,000 hours of service or as specified by the manufacturer.
Special Carried out as required after any form of actual, suspected, or potential damage is sustained.

Daily inspections

Daily inspections must include, but not be limited to, the following:

(a) all rope reeving, including load lines, jib suspension, boom hoist and mid-point suspension;
(b) all control mechanisms for incorrect and/or malfunctions interfering with proper operation;
(c) all control mechanisms for excessive wear of components and contamination by lubricants or other foreign matter;
(d) all safety devices;
(e) all air, hydraulic, lubricating and cooling systems for deterioration or leakage;
(f) electrical apparatus for malfunction, signs of excessive deterioration, dirt, icing and moisture accumulation;
(g) all hydraulic hoses;
(h) hooks and latches for deformation, chemical and heat damage, cracks and wear;
(i) hydraulic system for proper oil level;
(j) swivels for freedom of rotation;
(k) clutches, brakes and attachments for malfunction;
(l) outriggers and outrigger boxes;
(m) tires.

Periodic inspections

Periodic inspections must include, but not be limited to, the following

(a) all daily inspection items;
(b) deformed or corroded and cracked members or welds in the crane structure or boom;
(c) loose bolts, nuts, pins;
(d) cracked, worn or distorted parts such as pins, gears, rollers, and locking devices;
(e) wear on brake and clutch system parts such as linings;
(f) pawls and ratchets;
(g) load, boom angle and other indicators;
(h) all power plants;
(i) hooks;
(j) all control mechanisms for excessive wear and contamination;
(k) travel steering and braking systems for malfunction;
(l) worn or damaged tires and crawler undercarriage;
(m) hoses, fittings and tubing for leakage, blistering, deformation, tight joints, excessive abrasion or scrubbing;
(n) hydraulic and pneumatic pumps and motors for loose bolts, fasteners, leaks, shaft seal leaks, unusual noises or vibration, loss of operating speed, excessive heating, loss of pressure;
(o) valves for cracks, leaks, sticking, failure;
(p) cylinders for leaking, seals, welded joints, scored, nicked, dented rods, dented case, loose, deformed rod eyes and joints;
(q) filters;
(r) windows, horn, wipers, heater, defroster, lights, gauges, transmissions, differential, cooling, fuel, electrical system, drive belts, suspension, steering, brake systems, crawler chain, tracks, sprockets, rollers.

Annual inspection

An annual inspection must be performed by a qualified person and supervised by a professional engineer. Annual inspections must include, but not be limited to, the following:

(a) all daily and periodic inspection items including test load, if specified by the manufacturer;
(b) outrigger and outrigger boxes;
(c) rotating frame and bearing including main baseplate welds;
(d) steering knuckles;
(e) boom foot section, lattice boom;
(f) boom head;
(g) boom hoist;
(h) boom sections including sheaves, hooks, blocks, wedge sockets;
(i) teardown inspection and lubrication of the swivel hook, and block assembly at least every five years and the hooknut disassembled and inspected for corrosion and wear.

Inspection of welds must be in accordance with CSA Standard W59-M1989 (R2001), Welded Steel Construction (Metal Arc Welding). Critical areas identified by the manufacturer, the supervising professional engineer or the qualified inspector must be further examined by an appropriate non-destructive test.

Structural inspection of telescopic boom

In addition to daily, periodic and annual inspections, non-destructive testing and inspection of interior welds within 1.8 metres of the base or tip of each section of the telescoping boom must be performed every 10 years or 10,000 hours of service, whichever comes first, or as specified by the manufacturer.

(3) Cranes not in regular use – A crane that has been idle for more than one month but less than six months must be given a daily inspection before being placed into operation. A crane that has been idle for more than six months must be given a periodic inspection before being placed into operation.

(4) Testing – Prior to initial use, all load-bearing parts that have been altered, replaced or repaired must be load tested to 100 percent of rated capacity by a professional engineer and re-rated by the original manufacturer or a professional engineer.

(5) Maintenance – A preventive maintenance program based on the manufacturer’s specifications is required. Any adjustments must be in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications or a professional engineer.