OHS Code Explanation Guide

Published Date: July 01, 2009
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Part 19 Powered Mobile Equipment

Section 270 Rollover protective structures

Subsection 270(1)

Rollover protective structures (ROPS) are strong cages, frames, roll bars, or other structures attached to certain types of powered mobile equipment. ROPS systems are designed and built to provide crush protection for an operator during a rollover or accidental upset. Figures 19.2 through 19.10 show examples of the powered mobile equipment listed.

This section includes industrial ride-on lawnmowers weighing 700 kilograms or more. Rollovers involving industrial ride-on lawnmowers are most often the result of the lawnmowers hitting bumps, wheels dropping into holes, ditches, or structures such as swimming pools, wheels dropping off terraces, embankments, or retaining walls, and operating at full speed on steep slopes or during tight cornering. Rollovers have also occurred when machines have slid down slippery slopes.

Figure 19.2 Examples of a tracked dozer and tracked loader

Figure 19.3 Examples of wheeled dozer and wheeled loader

Figure 19.4 Example of a skidder

Figure 19.5 Example of a backhoe with limited horizontal swing

Figure 19.6 Example of a motor grader

Figure 19.7 Example of a self-propelled wheeled scraper

Figure 19.8 Examples of agricultural tractors

Figure 19.9 Examples of industrial tractors

Figure 19.10 Examples of wheeled trenchers

Subsection 270(2)(a)

CSA Standards B352.0-95 (R2006), B352.1-95 (R2006), and B352.2-95 (R2006) detail the design, testing, performance and safety requirements for rollover protective structures (ROPS) for certain types of self-propelled machines for agricultural, construction, earthmoving, forestry, industrial, and mining operations..

CSA Standard B352.1 covers the performance requirements, based on destructive testing, for ROPS on wheeled agricultural tractors with a mass greater than 800 kilograms. It may also be used to evaluate general-purpose industrial tractors.

CSA Standard B352.2 covers the performance requirements, based on destructive testing, for ROPS on industrial tractors, motor graders, prime movers, skidders, tracked dozers, tracked loaders, wheeled dozers, wheeled loaders, backhoe loaders, rigid-frame dumpers, compactors, or rollers, with machine mass greater than 700 kilograms.

A ROPS complying with the referenced CSA standards will have a permanently attached label that includes the following information:
(a) name of the ROPS manufacturer;
(b) ROPS identification number;
(c) the Canadian standard to which the ROPS was certified; and
(d) machine make and models for which the ROPS is designed.

Subsection 270(2)(b)

SAE Standard J1042 (2003), Operator Protection for General-Purpose Industrial Machines, establishes performance requirements for protective systems that provide operator protection from hazards of machine rollover and/or falling objects. The Standard does so by recommending certain design features that reduce the likelihood of operator injury e.g. construction and location of batteries, fuel tanks, oil reservoirs, etc. and eliminating edges, corners and sharp projections that an operator might contact. The Standard also makes direct reference to other SAE Standards that present specific construction and performance criteria for ROPS and falling object protective structures (FOPS).

Checking the manufacturer’s specifications and/or checking to see if the ROPS bears a label referring to the Standard can verify compliance with the Standard.

Subsection 270(2)(c)

SAE Standard J1194 (1999), Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) for Wheeled Agricultural Tractors, establishes the test and performance requirements of a rollover protective structure (ROPS) designed for wheel-type agricultural tractors to minimize the frequency and severity of operator injury resulting from accidental upsets.

Checking the manufacturer’s specifications and/or checking to see if the ROPS bears a label referring to the Standard can verify compliance with the Standard.

Subsection 270(2)(d)

ISO Standard 3471:2000, Earth-moving machinery – Roll-over protective structures – Laboratory tests and performance requirements, establishes consistent and reproducible means of evaluating the load-carrying characteristics of roll-over protective structures under static loading conditions. The Standard applies to the following seated design operator-controlled machines:
(a) crawler tractors and loaders;
(b) graders;
(c) wheeled loaders and wheeled tractors;
(d) wheeled industrial tractors;
(e) prime movers;
(f) rollers and compactors; and
(g) rigid frame dumpers.

Subsection 270(2)(e)

OSHA Standard 1928.52, Protective Frames for Wheel-type Agricultural Tractors – Tests, Procedures and Performance Requirements, applies primarily to tractors used as ride-on lawnmowers. A protective frame is a structure comprised of uprights mounted to the tractor, extending above the operator’s seat to form what looks like a roll bar.

Checking the manufacturer’s specifications and/or checking to see if the ROPS bears a label referring to the Standard can verify compliance with the Standard.

Subsection 270(2)(f)

This subsection recognizes that some equipment remains in service for many years, sometimes well beyond the lifetime of the referenced standards. Equipment having a ROPS designed or manufactured to comply with a previous edition of one of the referenced standards continues to be acceptable for use.

Subsection 270(3)

The powered mobile equipment listed in subsection (1) must be ROPS equipped. However, other equipment may also be subject to rollover because of how or where it is used. Section 7 of the OHS Code requires that the employer assess the work site for hazards. In the case of equipment that may roll over because of how or where it is used, the employer’s hazard assessment should consider the manufacturer’s specifications, stability data for the equipment, hazards presented during loading and unloading of the equipment, the type of work being performed with the equipment, and the conditions under which the equipment is being operated.

In cases where the possibility of rollover is present, the employer must either equip the equipment with an appropriate ROPS or implement safe work procedures that eliminate the possibility (Section 8 of the OHS Regulation requires that the procedures be in writing and available to workers). The ROPS must either be supplied by the manufacturer (the ROPS can meet any standard the manufacturer specifies and need not be limited to one of those listed in subsection (1)), or be certified by a professional engineer as being suited to that equipment.

Safe work procedures are a set of rules that must be followed. Using these procedures eliminates the need to equip the equipment with a ROPS by eliminating any possibility of the equipment rolling over during operation. The procedures may limit or restrict where the equipment can be used. For example, restrictions may include:

(a) the slope on which equipment can be operated e.g. the equipment cannot be operated across a slope or up and down a slope exceeding so many degrees of incline;
(b) the terrain over which the equipment is operated e.g. the equipment cannot be operated in areas where it is possible for it to rollover because a wheel or wheels can drop into a hole, ditch, etc. or drop off an edge such as an embankment, retaining wall, etc.;
(c) maximum operating speed while cornering; and
(d) marking off areas where slopes exceed the maximum slope angle, where terrain features are capable of causing a rollover, and where other hazards are present that could cause a rollover. Barricades, flagging, or similar means of warning may be needed to alert the operator of the hazard.