OHS Code Explanation Guide

Published Date: July 01, 2009
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Part 6 Cranes, Hoists and Lifting Devices

Section 100 Safety code for tower cranes

CSA Standard Z248-04, Code for Tower Cranes, applies to the design, characteristics, construction, installation, dismantling, operation, testing, maintenance and inspection. of tower cranes.

The following are some critical requirements of the standard:

  • Section 6.4.3 Manuals
    A manual for the specific model of crane, containing all pertinent manufacturer’s specifications and instructions relating to its operation and maintenance. This must be provided by the crane supplier.
  • Part 5 Erection, Dismantling and Climbing
    This part describes requirements for erecting, dismantling, and transporting the crane, including foundation design.
  • Part 6 Inspection, Testing and Repairs
    This part describes requirements for inspection, testing, maintenance and repairs. These must be performed by the crane operator or qualified personnel on a scheduled basis.

Before being placed into service

Once erected and before being placed into service, the crane must be inspected by the erector’s personnel and the crane’s operator. Operating tests must be conducted to ensure that:

(a) clearances and alignments are in order and all moving parts are engaged properly;
(b) all controls and limit switches are set and operating correctly in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications;
(c) all circuits and interlocks operate in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications;
(d) all protective devices operate satisfactorily; and
(e) each motion of the crane operates in accordance with the manufacturer specifications.

A load test must be performed as specified by the manufacturer. In the absence of such specifications, a load test must be performed with a load equal to 105 percent of the rated load.

Daily inspections

The operator must carry out the following daily inspection activities:
(a) ensure that all wedges in slab openings are in place and are tight;
(b) ensure that all guy lines and all guy line connections, if used, are acceptable;
(c) inspect mast bolts and anchor bolts;
(d) ensure that all limit switches (except line pull limit switches), signal lights, audio and visual indicators, and brakes are functioning properly;
(e) inspect load hoist and boom hoist ropes according to Clause 6.5 of the CSA Standard;
(f) inspect grounding connections;
(g) inspect the tracks for loose connections, proper drainage, subsidence, and bogie wear on travelling cranes; and
(h) inspect rail clamps, if used, daily or each time their application is made.

The rigger must:
(a) check all slings and rigging used with the crane prior to use;
(b) inspect the test block-lifting hardware prior to lifting the test block; and
(c) inspect the load block and hook.

Weekly inspections

The following must be inspected weekly:
(a) structural pins and keepers;
(b) trolley rollers, tracks, slewing rings, and rollers;
(c) gear shaft and belt drives;
(d) sheaves, bushings, and pins;
(e) guy ropes, pendant lines, cable clips, thimbles, and ferrules;
(f) jib backstops (boom stops);
(g) all rope attachments;
(h) walkways, handrails, and ladders;
(i) the location in the structure where accumulation of water could result in damage to ensure that such water is drained;
(j) tie-ins to slabs or other bracing systems where used.

Monthly inspections

The following must be inspected monthly:
(a) all running ropes, in accordance with Clause of the CSA Standard to check for all types of deterioration;
(b) mast and boom structure for cracks or buckling;
(c) bogie wear on travelling cranes;
(d) counterweight supports;
(e) brake adjustment (wear); and
(f) drums, sheaves, bearings and mounts.

Annual inspections

After a crane has been in service for 12 months, it must undergo
(a) visual inspection of the structure with nondestructive inspection according to Clause 6.3.1 of the CSA Standard on suspect areas;
(b) inspection of all load-carrying equipment, including sheaves, blocks, rings, shackles, hooks, chains, and slings
(c) inspection of all fixed ropes according to Clause for all types of deterioration;
(d) inspection of all running ropes according to Clause for all types of deterioration;
(e) operational tests according to Clause 6.3.2; and
(f) a load test in accordance with Clause 6.3.3.

Special inspections

Special inspections are inspections conducted following shock loading, electrical contact, other misadventures, repairs, alterations, or prolonged shutdown.

A crane that requires structural alterations, repairs, or replacement of parts related to hoisting or safety of operation must be tested and approved by a professional engineer or the engineer’s designate. Repairs or alterations to structural parts must be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and instructions or the specifications of a professional engineer. All welding must be done in accordance with CSA Standard W59-03 (R2008), Welded Steel Construction (Metal Arc Welding).

A load test must be carried out after any alteration or repairs have been made to the load-carrying ability of the crane. This test must be performed as described in Clause 6.3.3 of CSA Standard Z248-04.

Prior to commencing work after a prolonged shutdown, a full soil inspection by a professional engineer competent in soil inspection and a structural inspection according to Clause 6.4.7 of the Standard must be carried out by a professional engineer competent in the inspection of tower cranes.

Clause 6.5 of the Standard describes inspection and replacement requirements for wire rope.

  • Part 7 Maintenance and Repairs
    This part describes proactive maintenance, lubrication, adjustment and repair requirements.
  • Part 8 Safe Operation
    This part describes operating responsibilities and requirements.